National Stuttering Association

Title Primary
Contact Approved
 Articulatory Characteristics of Stuttering  Ms. Yijing Lu   Ms. Yijing Lu  08/19/2023  View Abstract
Designing Interactions between People Who Stutter and Community Resources Jeremy Huang 


Jeremy Huang   07/28/2023  View Flyer(PDF)

Participant Interest Form

Phonological performance abilities in children who do, and do not, stutter Roa’a Al-Sulaiman
Roa’a Al-Sulaiman   02/21/2023  View Flyer
Information Processing in Speakers who Stutter   Dr. Naomi Eichorn  Dr. Naomi Eichorn  12/2/2022 More Information
 Mindfulness and compassion in people who stutter  Dr. Michael Boyle  Dr. Michael Boyle   10/11/2022  View Survey
An Exploration of the Management of Stuttering During Job Interviews  Ms. Charity Yarzebinski   Ms. Charity Yarzebinski   10/10/2022 More Information
Stuttering and Emotion in Daily Lives Ms. Xiaofan Lei Xiaofan Lei 7/15/2022 View Flyer
Understanding Language Production in Adults Who Stutter   Dr. Si On Yoon  Dr. Si On Yoon  6/2/2022 More Information
The impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Communication and Quality of Life In People Who Stutter   Dr. Shriya Basu  Dr. Shriya Basu  6/2/2022 View Survey
Temporal Dynamics of Stuttered Speech   Dr. Eric Jackson  Dr. Eric Jackson  6/2/2022 More Information
Is There Still a Place for Pseudo-stuttering Assignments for Speech-Language Pathology Students? Ms. Ammaarah Carrington Ammaarah Carrington 3/23/2022 View Abstract (PDF)
Speech Acoustics of People with Stutter and Clutter Dr. Evan Usler Evan Usler 3/16/2022 View Abstract (PDF)
Standardization Study of the Stuttering Severity Instrument—Fifth Edition Dr. Melissa Morey Melissa Morey 3/16/2022 View Abstract (PDF)
Successful Aging in Adults who Stutter: Physical and Mental Health Quality of Life Dr. Nathan Maxfield Nathan Maxfield 3/16/2022 View Abstract (PDF)
Intersectionality and the experience of stuttering for Latinos in the United States Ms. Carolina Beita-Ell Carolina Beita-Ell 3/16/2022 View Abstract (PDF)
Client Perceptions about Speech Therapy for Stuttering Mr. Samuel Moses Samuel Moses 3/16/2022 View Flyer 
A Qualitative Study of the Experiences of LGBTQ+ People Who Stutter Dr. Derek Daniels Derek Daniels 3/16/2022 View Abstract
Surveys about the Experience of Stuttering Seth Tichenor and
Dr. Scott Yaruss
Seth Tichenor 3/15/2022 View Survey
Factors Associated with Adults Seeking Continued Stuttering Treatment. Ms. Jaclyn Lucey Ms. Jaclyn Lucey 3/4/2022 View Survey
Developing Stages of Change Measures to Assess Adults’ Readiness to Make a Positive Change to Stuttering Dr. Naomi Rodgers Dr. Naomi Rodgers 12/4/2021 View Survey
Uncertainty about stuttering among people who stutter. Dr. Michael Boyle Dr. Michael Boyle 12/4/2021 More Information
The client’s perspective on self-disclosure Ms. Megan Young Dr. Courtney Byrd Megan Young 10/13/2021 View Survey
Identifying the link between executive function, gestures and stuttering severity in bilingual and monolingual children who stutter Dr. Ai Leen Choo Dr. Ai Leen Choo 8/18/2021 More Information
Stuttering Treatment Experiences, Perceptions, and Willingness to Seek Future Treatment Ms. Jaclyn Lucey Ms. Jaclyn Lucey 8/18/2021 More Information
Employment Experiences of People who Stutter Ms. Charity Yarzebinski Ms. Charity Yarzebinski 8/18/2021 More Information
Better understanding public and private reactions to stuttering among people who stutter Dr. Michael Boyle Dr. Michael Boyle 8/18/2021 View Survey
Impact of Stuttering on Women Who Stutter in Their Young Adulthood Ms. Ran An Ms. Ran An 8/18/2021 More Information
A Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group, Phase 2 Exploratory Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Ecopipam Tablets in Adults with Childhood Onset Fluency Disorder (Stuttering) Kerensa Saljooqi Kerensa Saljooqi 5/14/2021 More Information
Improving quality of life for adults who stutter through an online self-compassion intervention: A pilot study Ms. Robyn Croft &
Dr. Courtney Byrd
Robyn Croft 4/15/2021 More Information
Concepts of support in the stuttering experience Dr. Angela Medina Dr. Angela Medina 4/11/21 View Survey
Communication and Decision-Making Luis R. Rodriguez Luis R. Rodriguez 10/8/2020 View Survey
The Psychological Benefits of Community Service for People Who Stutter Ms. Daniella Hay Daniella Hay 9/2/2020 View Survey
Music and Language Habits of Individual who Stutter Ms. Anastasia Sares Anastasia Sares 9/2/2020 View Survey
Attention and Stuttering: Differentiating Linguistic and Working Memory Differences in People Who Stutter Mr. Seth Tichenor & Dr. J Scott Yaruss Seth Tichenor 8/1/2020 View Abstract
Immediate serial recall in adults who do and do not stutter Xiaofan Lei &
Dr. Jayanthi Sasisekaran
Xiaofan Lei 7/19/2020 View Abstract
Executive Functions, Experiences, and Perceptions of Persons Who Stutter Dr. Jane Roitsch Dr. Jane Roitsch 7/1/2020 View Survey
A Mixed Methods Investigation into the Factors Contributing to Client Attrition in Speech Therapy for Stuttering Ms. Monica L. Johnson & Dr. John Tetnowski Ms. Monica L. Johnson 5/6/2020 View Abstract
View Survey
Self-compassion, Self-help, and Quality of Life in Adults Who Stutter Ms. Robyn Croft & Dr. Courtney Byrd Ms. Robyn Croft 4/16/2020 View Survey
Stuttering Identity’s Contribution to Well-Being Among Adults who Stutter Dr. Christopher Constantino Dr. Christopher Constantino 4/10/2020 View Abstract
Stigma and the Hispanic Stuttering Experience: A Qualitative Study Leslee Dean and
Dr. Angela Medina
Leslee Dean 6/24/2020 View Abstract
Students who stutter: Oral presentation experiences in the college classroom Danielle Werle &
Dr. Courtney Byrd
Danielle Werle 4/16/2020 View Survey
Understanding Individual Differences in Wellbeing Among Adults who Stutter Hope Gerlach &
Patricia Zebrowski
Hope Gerlach 3/20/2020 View Survey
Experiences of workplace discrimination in people who stutter Hayley Hawkins and Dr. Laura Plexico Hayley Hawkins 1/27/2020 View Survey
Prosodic influences on speech motor control in adults who do and do not stutter Hailey Kopera Hailey Kopera 12/17/2019 View Abstract
Adults who Stutter and their Motivation to Attend Support Groups Dr. Angela Medina Angela Medina 10/30/2019 View Abstract
Life Partners’ Perceptions on the Emotional, Behavioral, and Cognitive Impact of Stuttering Athanasia Svenning Athanasia Svenning 5/1/2019 View Abstract
Voices of people who stutter/clutter (Teaching with FluencyBank) Nan Bernstein Ratner, Professor Nan Bernstein Ratner 3/1/2019 View Abstract
Yoga Therapy for Stutterers Nikita Mehta,
San Francisco State University
Nikita Mehta 12/20/18 View Abstract
Being open about stuttering: What are the effects? Michael P. Boyle, Ph.D., CCC-SLP and Rodney M. Gabel, Ph.D., CCC-SLP Dr. Michael Boyle,
Dr. Rodney Gabel
12/14/18 View Abstract
Anticipatory Completions in Conversations between PWS and PWNS Sergey Kondrashov, B.S.
Dr. John A. Tetnowski
Sergey Kondrashov 6/18/2018 View Abstract
The influence of discrimination on vocational choices of young adults who stutter Mr. Edward Brown and Dr. Laura Plexico Edward Brown 6/1/2018 View Survey
Neural mechanisms underlying social interaction in stuttering and non-stuttering speakers Dr. Eric S. Jackson eric.s.jackson@nyu.edu 5/12/2018 View Abstract
Measuring family communication levels of adults who stutter Dr. Charles Hughes chughes@bgsu.edu 1/25/2018 View Survey
Self-efficacy and self-stigma variance between Speech Language Pathologists who stutter (SLPs-WS) and do not stutter (SLPs-WDS) toward their clinical service provision Abby Hemmerich, Ph.D., CCC-SLP and Kodai Noguchi, B.S. noguchk@uwec.edu View Survey
Bullying inventory for children who stutter Dr. Nina Santus nsantus@misericordia.edu 8/2017 (closed)
Medication Use in Adults who Stutter Geoffrey A. Coalson, PhD and Hailey R. Guillot, B.A., B.S. hguill8@lsu.edu 1/2018 View Survey
The Perceived Role of Bilinguialism in Stuttering Tiziana Pereira, B.A. tpere111@fiu.edu 12/2017 View Abstract (PDF)
The relationship of attitudes about stuttering to mental and physical health in adults who stutter Michael P. Boyle, Ph.D., CCC-SLP boylemi@montclair.edu 12/2017 View Abstract (external)
The Experience of Spontaneous Speech Christopher Constantino, M.S., CCC-SLP ccnstntn@memphis.edu 12/2017 View Abstract (PDF)
Applying the Transtheoretical Model to Stuttering Management Among Adolescents Who Stutter Patricia Zebrowski or Naomi Hertsberg IowaStutteringProject@gmail.com 6/2017 View Survey
Perspectives of Stuttering Treatment: Parents, Adolescents, and Children Heather Salvo Heather Salvo or Dr. Carol H. Seery 6/2017 View Abstract (PDF)
The role of support groups in the attainment and longevity of treatment goals in the speech disorder stuttering: A survey study Dr. Julia Unger Dr. Julia Unger 4/22/2017 View Abstract (PDF)
Pebbles Under the Tongue: A Qualitative Investigation of Parents who Stutter Craig Kramer, Antioch University New England Craig Kramer 3/2017 View Abstract (PDF)
Enhancing speech motor control in speakers who stutter with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) Dr. Soo Eun Chang and Dr. Emily Garnett Dr. Soo Eun Chang and Dr. Emily Garnett 12/2016 View Abstract (PDF)
The effects of self-disclosure on the communicative interaction between people who stutter and normally fluent speakers James M. Mancinelli, MS CCC-SLP James M. Mancinelli 6/2016 View Abstract (PDF)
Treatment and The Self-Stigma of Stuttering Scale Sabrina LeVan Sabrina LeVan 5/2016 View Abstract (PDF)
Perceptions of Stuttering of the Different Age Groups Dr. John Tetnowski & Sergey Kondrashov Dr. John Tetnowski & Sergey Kondrashov 4/2016 View Abstract (PDF)
A comparison of lexical access in adults who do and do not stutter Timothy Howell Timothy Howell 3/2016 View Abstract (PDF)
Personal Appraisal of Support for Stuttering Kathleen Scaler-Scott, Ph.D., CCC-SLP Dr. Kathleen Scaler-Scott 1/2016 View Abstract (PDF)
Stuttering and Primary Medical Care: A Cross-Sectional Study Hector R. Perez, MD Dr. Hector Perez 1/2016 View Abstract (PDF)
Semantic Neighborhood Effects in Stuttering Emily O. Garnett, M.S., CCC-SLP, PhD candidate & Dirk-Bart den Ouden, PhD Emily Garnett 1/2016 View Abstract (PDF)
Covert Stuttering Chris Constantino Chris Constantino 12/2015 View Abstract (PDF)
Interaction of sensory and motor processes in individuals who stutter P.I. Ludo Max, Ph.D. Dr. Ludo Max 5/2015 View Abstract (PDF)
Practice and feedback schedules that optimize retention and transfer of speech therapy skills Sarah Smits-Bandstra, Ph.D., CCC-SLP Dr. Sarah Smits-Bandstra 3/22/2015 View Abstract (PDF)
Attitudes of children & adolescents toward stuttering therapy Heather Salvo &
Carol H. Seery, Ph.D., CCC-SLP
Heather Salvo &
Carol H. Seery
2/3/2015 View Abstract
The Relationship between Self-Concept, Coping, and Satisfaction with Life in People who Stutter Laura Plexico, PhD, SLP Laura Plexico 2/3/2015 View Abstract
Perceptions of stuttering, thoughts, and feelings among adults who stutter Michael P. Boyle, Ph.D., CCC-SLP Michael P. Boyle 12/2014 View Abstract
Beliefs About Pharmacotherapy for Stuttering: A Survey of Adults Who Stutter Dr. Allan McGroarty Allan McGroarty 11/2014 Survey Now Closed
Effects of Cortical Stimulation on Self-monitoring Performance in People Who Stutter Emily O. Garnett, M.S., CCC-SLP, Ph.D. candidate &Dirk-Bart den Ouden, Ph.D Emily O. Garnett 10/2014 View Abstract (PDF)
Examining Contextual Influences on Speech Stability in People Who Do and Do Not Stutter Using Kinematic and Acoustic Approaches Eric Jackson, M.S., CCC-SLP Eric Jackson 8/20/2014 View Abstract (PDF)
Obtaining Brief Narrative Samples for Computer Analysis of Self Perception Walt Manning, Ph.D. Dr. Walt Manning 6/25/2014 View Abstract (PDF)
International Genes for Stuttering Shelly Jo Kraft, PhD, CCC-SLP Dr. Shelly Jo Kraft 6/25/2014 View Abstract (PDF)
Cross-cultural study to explore the relationship between temperament & character and stuttering Dr. Susanne Cook
Dr. Christian Montag
Dr. Charley Adams
Dr. Susanne Cook
Dr. Christian Montag
Dr. Charley Adams
View Link
Psychosocial Support for Adults Who Stutter: Exploring the Role of Online Communities Erik X. Raj, M.S., CCC-SLP Erik X. Raj 10/16/2013 View Abstract (PDF)
Beliefs and Attitudes about the Medical Encounter Among Persons Who Stutter Joanna Starrels, MD, MS & Hector Perez, MD Hector Perez, MD 7/25/2013 View Abstract (PDF)
The Role of Self-Help Conferences in Stuttering Management for School-Age Children Mitchell Trichon, PhD Mitchell Trichon 7/25/2013 View Abstract (PDF)
Lifespan Cognition in People Who Stutter Nathan Maxfield, PhD, CCC-SLP Nathan Maxfield 7/2013 View Abstract (PDF)
Needs and Concerns of Parents in Raising a Child Who Stutters Nancy Hall Ph.D. Nancy Hall 6/27/2013
The Perception of Partners of People Who Stutter: A Mixed Methods Study Katherine Pensinger, B.S. Katherine Pensinger 6/27/2013 View Abstract (PDF)
Lend Your Voice! Nancy Hall, Ph.D. Nancy Hall 3/23/2013 University of Maine researcher seeking input from parents. Nancy Hall, a professor in Communication Sciences and Disorders, is interested in learning about the needs and concerns of parents raising children who stutter. Working with the National Stuttering Association, Nancy is conducting a survey of families with children of all ages (including those who are grown) to help identify what families need most at different stages of their children’s lives. As a member of the NSA, you may receive an email describing the project and inviting you to participate.
Voluntary Stuttering Jason Davidow & Heather Grossman Jason
4/18/2012 This study explores the impact of differing amounts of bouncing (purposeful repetitions of sounds and/or syllables) on stuttering frequency, speech effort, and speech naturalness. Fifteen adults who stutter will complete a series of oral reading tasks involving various amounts of bounced sounds and/or syllables.
Survey About a New (High Tech) Fluency Device Tyler Hagler Tyler Hagler 3/29/2012
NC State Researchers Need People Who Stutter and SLPs to Participate Survey About a New (High Tech) Fluency DeviceA team of graduate students from the NC State University are evaluating a fluency device invented in the Product Innovation Lab last semester. They are seeking people who stutter and Speech-Language Pathologists to take the survey to understand whether the device would be valuable to the stuttering community.
Phonological skills of adults who stutter Kristin M. Pelczarski Kristin M. Pelczarski 2/07/2012 Research investigates some of the language factors that may be involved in stuttering. I am currently recruiting for a study that investigates the phonological processing skills of adults who stutter as compared to adults who do not stutter.We are looking for both people who stutter and people who do not stutter age 21-50. Aside from stuttering exhibited by the adults who stutter, participants will be required to have no known hearing, language or neurological difficulties.
Speech-language pathologist knowledge of support groups Behnaz Abolmaali &Courtney Byrd Behnaz Abolmaali 1/14/2012 Support groups such as the National Stuttering Association have become an important part of treatment and recovery process for many people who stutter. However, these groups are still undervalued among many speech-language pathologists. In an effort to better understand the dynamic of the relationship between support groups and SLPs, and how it may lead to more effective support groups, SLPs – both those who participate in the NSA and those who do not – will be surveyed about their opinions regarding self-help for stuttering.It is hypothesized that a majority of SLPs – even those who work with clients who stutter – will have little or no direct experience with stuttering support groups. It is further hypothesized that those who do participate will experience a number of benefits, including increased knowledge of stuttering, and enhanced competence working with clients who stutter.The study will attempt to answer the following research questions:1) How knowledgeable are SLPs about support group resources for people who stutter?2) How often and under what circumstances do SLPS refer clients who stutter to support groups?3) What benefits do SLPs derive form their participation in support groups for people who stutter?4) In what capacity do SLPs prefer to participate in support groups?
Parents of Children and Adolescents Who Stutter: A Mixed-Model Investigation of Knowledge, Perceptions, and Experiences Derek E. Daniels Derek E. Daniels 1/14/2012 The purposes of this study are to investigate knowledge and perceptions of stuttering, and personal experiences of parents and primary caregivers of children and adolescents who stutter. The specific aims are as follows: (1) To empirically confirm and explore the ways in which parents of children and adolescents who stutter manage their own emotions and experiences; (2) to develop a deeper understanding of the different ways in which parents cope with having a child or adolescent who stutters; (3) and to facilitate more effective counseling strategies for speech-language pathologists who work with parents of children and adolescents who stutter.
Fear and anxiety in stuttering James M. Brinton
Shelley Brundage
James M.Brinton 11/16/2011
Sexual dimorphism of neural development underlying childhood stuttering Soo Eun Chang Soo Eun Chang 11/16/2011 Researchers at the Michigan State University are conducting an NIH-funded, 5-year longitudinal investigation to study brain development in boys and girls who stutter.The overall objective of this research is to identify structural and functional neural markers of stuttering close to symptom onset and determine gender-specific brain developmental trajectory markers that serve to differentiate those children who do or do not recover from stuttering. The results of this study are expected to help clarify the neural bases of childhood stuttering, and lead to development of novel treatment options for stuttering.We are recruiting children who have been stuttering for more than 6 months, in the 4-8 year-range, to participate in comprehensive speech-language-hearing testing, cognitive and sensorimotor testing, and MRI scanning of the brain. All procedures are non-invasive and have been approved by the MSU IRB and the NIH. Children will be able to take home a picture of their brain, and parents will be given a comprehensive report of the assessments. All expenses for travel to the MSU campus in East Lansing will be reimbursed and families will be compensated for the time they spend in participating in the studies.For more information or if you are interested in participating in this research, please call Kristin Hicks, MA, CCC-SLP at 517-884-2257, or send an email to: hickskr@msu.edu.
NSA survey of teens who stutter and their parents Jim McClure
John Tetnowski
Jim McClure 10/03/2011 The National Stuttering Association and Friends, The Association of Young People Who Stutter, are conducting a survey on the experience of children, teens and young adults who stutter. If you work with children who stutter, we will appreciate your help in letting their parents know about this survey and inviting them to participate. Your teen and young adult clients may participate in the survey as well.
The online questionnaire asks about the impact of stuttering on the lives of children, and about their experience with stuttering treatment and support groups. The survey includes questions specifically directed at parents as well as teens and young adults who stutter.
If you wish to look at the questionnaire yourself, you may preview it by clicking on this link. Parents and teens may begin the questionnaire by clicking on this link. Survey findings will be posted on both the NSA and Friends web sites.
The survey findings will be used to educate the public about stuttering, and to give speech professionals greater insight into the issues faced by children and teens who stutter and their parents.
Acceptance of Stuttering and Its Correlates Thales De Nardo Thales De Nardo 09/24/2011
Rhyming poetry: Effects on the dysfluencies of people who stutter Michelle Geist Michelle Geist 08/25/2011
Motor responses during rapid naming activities in non-fluent versus fluent adults Lauren Pitrizzo Lauren Pitrizzo 08/25/2011
University of Maryland neuroimaging study of stuttering Joshua Riley Joshua Riley 06/29/2010 The Language Section of the National Institute on Deafness and Communication Disorders is recruiting participants who stutter for a behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study of anticipation in stuttering. Many people who stutter report that they have had the experience of predicting when they are going to have problems speaking. We want to find out exactly how often this happens, and how accurate these predictions are. We also want to know what brain regions are involved in making these predictions, and how similar these regions are to those that are active when dysfluencies are occurring.To do this, we want to use fMRI to perform brain scans of people who stutter while they are performing a few speech tasks, like reading selected passages and having a conversation with an experimenter. All the while, we will be asking our participants to indicate when they think they are about to have trouble speaking. This will test a major theory about why stuttering happens, and will tell us more about the neurology of stuttering.Participants can take part in this study at either the main campus of the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland, or at the University of Maryland, College Park (both Metro-accessible). Participants can choose to take part in just the behavioral testing portion of the study, or the whole study, including fMRI. Participants will be compensated for their time.
Beliefs and attitudes of children and adults who stutter regarding their ability to overcome stuttering Kenneth Melnick Kenneth Melnick 06/29/2011 The purpose of this study is to determine how children and adults who stutter perceive their ability to overcome stuttering. Participants will be monolingual Standard American English speaking males and females who exhibit stuttering in the age range 8 years old through adult. Participants are required to travel to Worcester State College, Worcester, MA for one evaluation session that will last approximately 45 minutes. The evaluation will include stuttering behaviors and attitudes as well as computerized questionnaire for mindset of stuttering. There is no cost to participate; in fact, participants will received a $20.00 gift card to Target at the conclusion of the evaluation. Please contact me if you would like to learn more about my study or be a participant: kmelnick@worcester.edu or (508) 929-8836
Relationship between severity of stuttering and quality of life in adults who stutter Brandy Combs Brandy Combs 06/02/2011 You are being invited to take part in a research study about the relationship between severity of stuttering in adults and their perceptions of quality of life. The purpose of this study is to determine if there is a statistically significant relationship between severity of stuttering and quality of life. We hope to learn about this relationship by comparing the scores of people who stutter on the Stuttering Severity Instrument-4th edition (SSI-4; Riley, 1994), the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form (SF-36; Ware, 1993), and the Overall Assessment of the Speaker’s Experience of Stuttering (OASES; Yaruss & Quesal, 2008) for adults who stutter (AWS).Participants should be in the age range of 18 to 65 years, have previously sought treatment for stuttering, and in generally good health.If you decide to take part in the study, it should be because you really want to volunteer. You will not lose any benefits or rights you would normally have if you choose not to volunteer. You can stop at any time during the study and still keep the benefits and rights you had before volunteering.If you have any difficulties, questions, or concerns regarding this study, please contact me at: brandy_combs45@eku.edu
Cognitive-linguistic processing in word production in adults who stutter Pei-Tzu Tsai Pei-Tzu Tsai 05/18/2011 The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of processing demand on production in adults who stutter (AWS). Evidence for language-related processing difficulties in AWS is emerging, yet inconclusive about the specific linguistic processes that might relate to fluency breakdown. It is possible that not all tasks are sensitive in reflecting subtle difficulties in online linguistic processing. This study will examine selected processes of word production under varying levels of processing demand. The goal of the study is to determine if there is deficiency at specific levels of linguistic processing during production and how processing demand affect production performances in adults who do and do not stutter.
We welcome individuals who are 1) native English speakers, 2) over 18 years old, 3) diagnosed with developmental stuttering, 4) have normal or corrected vision, and 5) no other communication disorders.
Eligible participants will receive stuttering, language, hearing and cognitive assessments, and complete word production tasks, in a two-hour session. Findings will be shared with participants. Please feel free to contact Pei-Tzu Tsai (ptsai1@umd.edu) with any questions or concerns.
The inner speech of persons who stutter Ronald Netsell & Klaas Bakker Ronald Netsell 02/18/2011
An investigation of the writing of clutterers, stutterers, and normal age and education matched peers Jennifer Czop Jennifer Czop 02/11/2011